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"Anadhyaaya Dinangal" (Educational Holidays)

In the olden days, during the learning and teaching of Vedams, Sanskrit, Saasthrams, etc., Namboothiris used to observe holidays based on the Thithis (see box), and not weeks as at present.

In each cycle (Paksham), the day on which Thrayodasi occurs during sunset, is called "Pradosham". If it occurs on two consecutive days, only the first day is counted as Pradosham. The period from the end of studies (othu) on Pradosham to the start of studies on the following Dwitheeya, are holidays. But on that day if Prathipadam does not extend into the "Naduppathu" (see note below) then that day is not a holiday.

[Note: A day is divided into 60 "Naazhikas" of 24 minutes each. The 12 hours of the daytime between sunrise and sunset is treated as three blocks of 10 Naazhikas each. Naduppathu is the middle block - from 11th to 20th Naazhika after sunrise.]

The time upto the end of Prathipadam is to be avoided, but not for Thrissur Yogam people. They do not avoid even the fourth leg of Dwaadasi if Pradosham occurs on the 3rd day of Ekaadasi.

Vedam learning is not restarted on Dwitheeya if it falls on the fourth day after stopping, and also if it is the 16th day after Prathipadam of earlier Stthaaleepaakam at the beginning of the Paksham. These are called 4th day holiday and 16th day holiday respectively. If it is a Wednesday, and Dwitheeya begins earlier than 3 Naazhikaas (1 Naazhika = roughly 24 minutes) after sunrise, restart only after that time. This is termed "Dwitheeyaamruthyu yogam". But later "Mruthyu yogams" need not be avoided.

From the six Naazhikaas of full moon day in the months of Mithhunam (Aashaadham, See Box on Malayalam months), Thulaam (Kaarthika) and Kumbham (Phaalgunam), the next three days are "Patipooram"; restart only after that.

THITHIS
Thithis are 15 in number, beginning with the first day after full moon and new moon.
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Name
Prathipadam
Dwitheeya
Thritheeya
Chathurthhi
Panchami
Shashtthi
Sapthami
Ashtami
Navami
Dasami
Ekaadasi
Dwaadasi
Thrayodasi
Chathurdasi
Vaavu
The lunar 15-day period is "Paksham". "Suklapaksham" starts from full moon day, while "Krishnapaksham" is from new moon.

Beginning with the fourth leg of Sapthami to the end of Ashtami, is holiday period, named "Madhyapakshaanadhyaayam". The entire day when Sapthami's fourth quarter is in "Naduppathu", is a holiday. The Ashtami Sandhya day, and the day falling in "Naduppathu" are holidays.

In addition, "Krishna Thrayodasi" of "Proshthapadam", "Maagha Krishna Sapthami" and "Navami", "Ashtakaakaalaanadhyaayam", and "Aaswina Mahaanavami" are holidays. Nights with Ashtami, Ekaadasi, Chathurdasi and Vaavu are holiday time; that is, only if Ashtami does not begin in the evening (Sandhya), and if legs other than the 4th, of Vaavu falls during night. "Sanipradosham" during the 3 Naazhikaas before sunset on Saturdays and the afternoons of Fridays are to be avoided (holiday time).

Studies (learning and revision) are not allowed during the salt-defilement (Uppu pula) following Guru's (teacher's) death, the Pindam days of Brahmachaaris, the first and last days of Vrathams and the day "Mura" ended.


| Article No:4.1 | Last update of this article:5th August 2000 |
Article prepared by: B Agnisarman Namboodiri, Advocate.
English Translation: K.D. Nambudripad

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