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The foundation of Braahmanyam, the essence of being a Braahmanan, is Sandhyaavandanam, the observance of ritualistic prayers at critical points of the day. All Braahmanans not only must need wear the sacred thread (Poonool) but also observe the appropriate rites of Sandhyaavandanam. Hence, we have specifically incorporated in "" a few articles that provide self-evident information (including the Manthrams) for the readers regarding the ritual. The three Vedic branches of Rik, Yajus and Saamam that are prevalent among Kerala Braahmanans comprise five chapters of Aashwalaayanam, Kausheethakam, Baudhaayanam, Baadhoolakam, and Jaimineeyam, and these chapters vary slightly in their practices of the rituals. The articles here try to deal with these differences as well so that they give relevant guidelines to all sections of Namboothiris to adapt the principles and practices suitably to their own set of beliefs and traditions. The argument that it is pointless chanting Manthrams without understanding what they mean is untenable, and conscious application and operationalisation will invariably lead on to positive outcomes. Knowing what they mean will, quite possibly be an added bonus.

In the general topic of Sandhyaavandanam the following are included:

  1. The poorvaangams (prologues) : aachamanam, prokshanam, manhtrasnaanam, jalapraasanam, arghyadaanam, pradakshinam, tarpanam
  2. Japam (chanting) : pranavam, dasapranavam, gaayathri, punah: pranavam
  3. Samaapanam (epilogues) : dishovandanam, pradakshinam, dhruvaasi, abhivaadyam
In addition, few articles also deal with some special rituals prevalent among Kerala. Maadhyandina-sandhyaavandanam (also known as upastthaanam among Nampoothiris), the rituals for renewal of sacred threads, praanaagnihothram (also known as bhojanavidhi, or ways of ingestion).

These very important articles are based on a reputed work called Thraivedika Sandhyaa Paddhathi, authored under the nom de plume Vaiyaasaki. For greater details, readers are advised to refer to this work.)

- Editor

Before Sandhyaavandanam, it is essential to observe bodily ablutions like shaucham, aachamanam, snaanam and internal ablutions like prokshanam, manthraavagaaham, jalapraasanam, etc.

1. The Poorvaangam

1. Aachamanam

By Aachamanam it is intended the cleansing of the indriyams, loosely translatable as "sense organs". Aachamanam, of which there are three types, is a pre-requisite to the cleansing of the mind and thoughts. The three types are: srautham, smaartham and pauraanikam, and, the last of which is usually what is ordained as well as traditionally observed by Keralites for the diurnal junctures or sandhyaas.

(Guidelines of) Smarthaachamanam

  1. The hair must be styled into a lock (Sikha) (click). Those without long hair must ensure that a few strands of hair must be twisted together to replicate a lock of hair.
  2. Clothing should either be a loin cloth or the "dhothi" trussed up in traditional braahminical fashion of "thattudukkal".
  3. Hands and feet should be duly washed.
  4. One must face the east or north or optionally any body of (fresh) water.
  5. When at a body of water like a pool or lake, observe the following posture: Squat with one foot in the water and the other ashore; bring your arms between the two knees; dip your left hand in the water (if at a faucet, hold the left hand under it) and perform the aachamanam with the right hand.
Take a drop of water in your right palm and ingest it three times. Take care to wet your hand before each of the following steps: Wipe across from right ear to left ear twice as two actions. Wipe from forehead downwards to chin. With a drop of water held between the ring finger and thumb touch the right eye and repeat for the left eye. With a drop of water between the thumb and index finger touch the right side and then repeat for the left side of the nose. A drop of water between the thumb and the little finger and touch the right ear base and then repeat for the left ear base. Finally, touch the heart, and then the head with all fingers except the little finger, moistened.

This makes one aachamanam. To complete the ritual, repeat the whole process all over again. Wherever it says "wash your feet and do aachamanam" remember that the ritual is complete only with the duplication.

2. Prokshanam (Recite and Sprinkle/Sprinkle and Wash)

Aachamanam is followed by prokshanam, which is internal cleansing with Manthrams and dedication. For Rigvedis and Saamavedis, there are three Manthrams to be recited, but for the Yajurvedis, there are four, the fourth one being the surabhi, recited initially. Take water in your hand and after reciting each Manthram, sprinkle the water on your face first and, finally just before coming out of the water, on your head.

Surabhi Manthram for Yajurvedis :
Aum. Dadhikraavno akaarisham jishnorasvasya vaajina:
Surabhi no mukhaakaral prana aayushi thaarishal

Riks common for Rigvedis, Yajurvedis and Saamavedis :
Aum. Aapohishtthaa mayobhuva: thaana oorje dadhaathana
Maheranaaya chakshase
Yovassivathamo rasa-sthasya bhaajayathe na:
Usatheeriva maathara:
Tasmaa aram gamaama va: yasya kshayaaya jinwattha
Aapo janayattha chana:

3. Manthrasnaanam (Wash in Holy Water)

The spiritual aspiration is that any body of water sanctifies itself once a Braahmanan performs his routine Manthrasnaanam in it.

Perform two repetitive aachamanams each with separate preparatory moves. Once with the sacred thread wound round the right ear – ritual initial ablutions done – the duly cleaned loin cloth put on and the sacred thread put across from right shoulder to left loin (Valathidal). Again with the hair washed and tucked away into a lock, perform a third aachamanam after taking a dip in the water, scrubbing clean one's body, taking two to three more dips, and coming ashore.

After the above, recite the Manthrams of prokshanam, sprinkle some water on the head, re-enter the water, take another dip invoking the river Ganges into the body of water you are in, and come ashore. While in waist deep water, reciting teertthaavaahana manthram (below) is also highly recommended.

Gamge cha Yamune chaiva Godavari Saraswathi
Narmade Sindhu Kaaveri jalesmin sannidham kuru
[Oh, the sacred rivers of Ganga, Yamuna, Godaavari, Saraswathi, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri! Please sanctify this body of water by your presence!] (Translation by P.B.N.).

It is important that the entire body along with all the habiliments are completely immersed. When coming out of the water, sprinkle two fistful of water on the shore step to cleanse the step.

Out of the water, first wipe your back. Clean the towel and then wipe the face and head. After that, style your hair into a lock, wash your feet and perform an aachamanam. Then wipe your body, fold your towel into a loin cloth to replace the one you are wearing. Remember to undo your loin cloth from behind forwards.

Wash hands and feet, sit down and do another aachamanam. Chant the pranavam and make a forehead thilakam with water. Sprinkle water on your face after chanting manthrams of prokshanam. If the time of day warrants a sandhyaavandanam, an arghyadaanam is recommended. But those prone to jalapraasanam, must wash their feet, perform aachamanam and punah-prokshanam before getting on to it. At other times, one can come ashore after doing tharpanam (see below for tharpanam ritual), and wringing one's clothes dry.

4. Jalapraasanam (Plying with Water)

Jalapraasanam is recommended after the bath and the performance of aachamanam and prokshanam. It is ordained as a penitence ritual for any sinful acts one may have committed, in thought or deed, knowingly or unknowingly. While some people do this routinely, it does not appear to be universally popular among all sects in Kerala. One need to do this as advised by one's preceptor.

The Ritual of Jalapraasanam

Sit down. Take water in the right hand crooked to hold it, recite the Manthram and ingest the water as one would a Brahma theertham. It is important to keep the thumb turned away from the palm not touching the index finger.

Manthrams: For Rig- and Sama- vedis

  1. At dusk - Raathrischa maa varunascha punaathu swaahaa
  2. At dawn - Ahascha maa dithyascha punaathu swaahaa
For Yajurvedis
  1. At dusk -
    Aum. Agnischa maa manyuscha manyapathayascha manyu krithebhya:
    paapebhyo rakshanthaam
    Yadahnaa paapamakaarsham manasaa vaachaa karmanaa
    Hasthaabhyaam padbhyaam udarena sisnjaa ahasthadavalum pathu
    Yath kinchith duritham mayi idamaham maamamruthayonow
    Sathye jyothishi juhomi swaahaa


  2. At dawn -
    Aum. Sooryscha maa manyuscha manyapathayascha manyu krithebhya:
    paapebhyo rakshanthaam
    Yad raathryaa paapamakaarsham manasaa vaachaa karmanaa
    Hasthaabhyaam padbhyaam udarena sisjnaa raathri sthadavalum pathu
    Yath kinchith duritham mayi idamaham maamamruthayonow
    Soorye jyothishi juhomi swaahaa


  3. Mid-diurnal (for all three)
    Aum. Aapa: punanthu pritthiveem, pritthwee poothaa punaathu maam
    Punanthu brahmanaspathi:, brahma poothaa punaathu maam
    Yadruchhishta-mabhojyam yath, yadwaa duscharitham mama
    Sarvam punanthu maamaapo sathaascha prathigraha swaahaa
Variation in Manthram

Some do their Jalapraasanam with just the three "aapohishtthadi" all three times. After the ritual, one is expected to do ritual feet ablutions, aachamanam and then punah: prokshanam. Arghyadaanam can be done only after that.

Some special facts about Jalapraasanam
» Not all Rigvedis observe it.
» Required for Baudhaayanans among Rigvedis. But quite a few don't observe.
» Generally unobserved among Baadhoolakans. However, those from Thamarapilli Desam, perform praasanam with aapohishthtaadi Mantram.
» Not generally observed by Saamavedis.
» All "outsiders" (Paradesi Braahmanans) regularly observe it.

Variations and alternative observances among Yagurvedis

There are many variations among Yajurvedis, an important one of which is given under. Consult your Guru when in doubt.

For the people from Thamarapilli Desam, the following sequence is suggested:

Saucham, washing of feet, Aachamanam, recite the three Riks - "Aapohishtthaadi", and sprinkle, again washing of feet and Aachamanam, then ear to ear wiping of face once each chanting Bhoo: and Bhuva:, next from fore-head to chin chanting Swa: , followed by eyes and other organs. For the second "Thalichukuli" (sprinkle and wash) use both palms and chant the four Riks starting with "Dadhikraavnna…".

5. Arghyadaanam

Arghyadaanam is propitiation of the Sun God. The pradakshinam ("cirumtreading") that goes with it is to be treated as a cosmic gesture. The spiritual aspiration implicit in arghyadaanam and pradakshinam is: Through this act of mine I dedicate and surrender my entire presence to the Sun God "Savithaavu", manifest in the form of Aadithyan; even as that Aadithyan is a manifestation of Brahmaavu, so is my existence. This is also the fundamental credo behind Sandhyaavandanam and hence this spiritual aspiration is a must for all Braahmanans.

Once you are through the rites of aachamanam and prokshanam, perform arghyadaanam three times with the sun ahead of you. Face east at dawn and midday, and west at dusk. Align feet together: Fixing your mind on Lord Savithaavu, use both hands cupped together for taking water, recite Gaayathri. Remember to keep the thumb away from the palm. Some do it only once and there is a variation among Aashwalaayanans of doing it without the Manthrams too. One should do as advised.

Gaayathri Manthram:

Aum. Bhoor bhuva: swa: thath savithur varenyam
Bhargo devasya dheemahi dhiyo yona: prachodayaal

Vocal alternant with Yajurvedis:

Aum. Bhoor bhuvassuva: thatth savithurvarenyam
Bhargo devasya dheemahi dhiyo yo naph prachodayaal

At dawn flick the water up from the end of the hand to rise as high as the bull's horns; at noon flick directly up with same manual posture; and at dusk let the water flow down your finger tips like from a conch shell.

6. Pradakshinam (Circumtreading)

Aatmapradakshinam (Self Circumtreading)

After arghyadaanam, take water in cupped right hand resting it in supportively cupped left hand, circumtread to your right, sit down, and proffer the water in tharpanam. Some do it with the right hand fisted too. Baudhaayanans should take water in both hands with fingers folded and should turn while chanting the Gaayathri sirass:

Aum. Aapo jyothiraso f mritham, brahma bhoorbhuvassuva: aum.

7. Tarppanam (Proffering)

After arghyadaanam and aatmapradakshinam, perform tarppanam facing north or east or a body of water, but not facing south.

How to Proffer ?

Hold water in palms cupped together and chanting the Manthram perform devatharppnam by letting the water out front eastwards.

Manthram: Aum. Devaamstharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Devaganaamstharpayaami- (three times)

Vocal Alternant for the Yajurvedis :
Aum. Devaastharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Devaganaastharpayaami- (three times)

1. Rishitharppanam (Proffering for the Rishis)

Hold the sacred thread with the thumbs by wearing it like a chain, and proffer the water in the cupped palms by letting it out along finger tips forwards while chanting the Manthram:
Aum. Risheemstharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Rishiganaamstharpayaami- (three times)

Vocal Alternant for Yajurvedis :
Aum. Risheestharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Rishiganaastharpayaami- (three times)

2. Pithrutharppanam (Proffering for the Forbears)

Sacred thread leftwards – water in cupped palms – Manthram chanting – proffer through the pithruteertham along the base of index finger :
Aum. Pithrumstharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Pithruganaamstharpayaami- (three times)

Vocal Alternant for Yajurvedis :
Aum. Pithrustharpayaami- (three times)
Aum. Pithruganaastharpayaami- (three times)

3. Swadhaatharppanam for the Forbears

Like the Jalapraasanam, this is not observed by all, and also has variations in mode.

For some Rigvedis: After the three proffers for the forbears, keeping the sacred thread to the left and chanting "swadhaa pithrubyah:", proffer shorewards and to the right in pithru theerttham.

For Yajurvedis: After the six proffers for the forbears, keep the left hand in water, roll the fingers counter clockwise inside the palm and recite the prayers to the water Gods.

Manthram: Aum. Oorjam vahantheeramrutham ghrutham paya: keelaalam parisrutham
Swadhaa sttha tharpayatha me pithrurn

Proffer three times shorewards: Thrupyatha, Thrupyatha, Thrupyatha. Re-align thread to the right, wash the feet and perform aachamanam.

Remember to articulate the long 'rə' in Pithrəən.

Some Points to be Noted:
  1. Deva, Rishi and forbear tharppanams recommended every time after a bath.
  2. Only deva tharppanam is recommended when doing sandhyaavandanam without bathing.
  3. Three tharppanams are recommended at midday even when performed uncleansed.
  4. After tharppanam, one should re-align the thread to the right, wash the feet and do aachamanam.

2. Japam (Ritual Intoning)
Once one comes ashore having done with arghyadaanam and tharppanam, Japam can begin.

  1. Intone sitting facing the west on an “Aavanappalaka” at dusk and standing facing east at dawn.
  2. Intone with open palms resting on knees at dusk and open palms folded forward at dawn.
  3. Baadhoolakans will intone standing with right palm over left palm and with head slanted to the left.
  4. Tallying is essential.

1. Pranavam (The Cosmic Sound)

Chhandass: Brahmaprajaapathi: rishi:(do mrigamudra and touch the head top – nyasikkal)
Daiveegayathree chhanda:(touch below the nose)
Paramaathmaa devathaa(touch the heart )

Chant “Aum” 108 times.

Mrigamudra is achieved by keeping the tips of the middle and ring fingers with the tip of the thumb. Touching with a proper sense of dedication is known as nyasikkal.)

Note: Some Baadhoolakans do nyaasam by chanting “Parameshtthee prajaapathi: rishi:”. Some Bauddhaayanans chant chhandass even to complete the Pranavam. Some who are from family of Thanthris, chant Ashtaaksharam eight times, with chhandass after their Pranavam intoning.

2. Dashapranavam (The Ten Pranavams)
After Pranavam, chant Dasapranavam with folded hands (Thozuthu).

Manthram: (1) Aum. Bhoo: (2) Aum. Bhuvah: (3) Aum. Swa: (4) Aum. Maha: (5) Aum. Janah: (6) Aum. Thapa: (7) Aum. Sathyam. (8) Aum. Thath savithur varenyam,
Bhargo devasya dhee mahi, dhiyo yona: prachodayaal (9) Aum. Aapo jyothiraso mrutham (10) Brahma bhoorbhuva: swa: - Aum.

Enunciation for the Yagurvedis:
Swa: - Suva:; Thath savithu – Thatthsavithu; Na: prachodayaal – Naph Prachodayaal

3. Gaayathri

Chhandass : Gaatthino viswaamithra rishi:(on head)
Gaayathree Chhanda:(on face)
Savithaa devathaa(on heart)
Manthram : Aum. Bhoorbhuvaswa: thath savithurvarenyam
Bhargo devasya dheemahi dhiyo yo na: prachodayaal

Alternate Version for the Yajurvedis:
Gaatthina:” is not required; only “viswaamithra: rishi:”. No change in vocal alternant.

Gaayathri can be chanted in 10, 24, 36, or 108 repetitions. Conclude the Gaayathri with Chhandass.

4. Punah: pranavam (Pranavam Repeated)

After Gaayathri, intone Pranavam 108 times. (The Rigvedis and Saamavedis do not need Chhandass for either at the start or completion of Punah: pranavam. While the Baadhoolakans need Chhandass only to end his Punah: pranavam, the Yajurvedi Baudhaayanans need it at both ends.)

Swaadhyaaya Mantrams for the Rigvedi Kausheethakans

After Punah: pranavam the Kausheethakans chant the following 14 stanzas sitting down with legs folded (chamram padinjirunnu), and palms holding each other (attam pidichu).

Swaadhyaaya Mantrams

    Raahoogano gothama: rishi: gaayathree chhandah: viswedevaa devathaa

  1. Aum. Aanobhadraa: krathavoyanthu viswatha:
             Adabdhaaso apareethaasa udbhida:
             Devaano yatthaa sadamidvrdhe asan
             Apraayuvo rakshithaaro divedive

  2. Devaanaam bhadraa sumathi rRjooyathaam
    Devaanaam raathi-rabhino nivarthathaam
    Devaanam sakhya-mupasedimaa vayam
    Devaa na aayu: prathiranthu jeevase

  3. Thaan poorvvayaa nividaa humahe vayam
    Bhagam mithra madithim dakshamasridham
    Aryamanam varunam somamaswinaa
    Saraswathee nassubhago mayaskaral

  4. Thanno vaatho mayobhu vaathu bheshajam
    Thanmaathaa pritthivee thalpithaa dou:
    Thad graavaana ssomasutho mayobhuva:
    Thadaswinaa srunutham dhishnyaa yuvam

  5. Tha-meesaanan jagatha sthastthushaspathim
    Dhiyanjinwa-mavase hoomahe vayam
    Pooshaa no yattha vedasaa masadvrudhe
    Rakshayaa paayu radabdha-sswasthaye.
  6. Viraal-stthaanaa chhanda:

  7. Aum. Swasthina indro vurddhasravaa:
             Swasthi na: pooshaa viswavedaa:
             Swasthi na sthaarkshyo arishtanemi:
             Swasthi no brhaspathir-ddadhaathu.
  8. Jagatheechchanda:

  9. Aum. Prushadaswaa marutha: prusnimaathara:
             Subham yaavaano vidattheshu jagmaya:
             Agnijihwaa manava: soorachakshasa:
             Viswe no devaa avasaaƒƒgamanniha
  10. Thrishtupchchanda:

  11. Aum. Bhadrangkarnemi srunuyaama devaa:
             Bhadram pasye-maakshabhir-yajathwaa:
             Stthirai rangai sthushtuvaamsa sthanoobhi:
             Vyasyema devahitham yadaayu:

  12. Sathaminnu sarado anthi devaa:
    Yathraa naschakraa jarasanthanoonaam
    Puthraaso yathra pitharo bhavanthi
    Maa no maddhyaa reerishathaayur gantho:

  13. Adithirdyu-radithi-ranthareeksham
    Adithirmaathaa sa pithaa sa puthra:
    Viswedevaa adithi: panchajanaa:
    Adithirjaatha-madithir janithwam
  14. Maareecha: kasyapa: rshi: thrishtupchhanda: jaathavedaa agnirdevathaa

  15. Aum. Jaathavedase sunavaama somam
             Araatheeyatho nidahaathi veda:
             Sa na: parshadathi durgaani viswaa
             Naaveva sindhun-durithaa thyagni:
  16. Thaarkshyo arishtanemi: rshi: thrtshtup chchanda, thaarkshyo devathaa

  17. Aum. Thyamooshu vaajinandeva-jootham
             Sahaavaanan-tharuthaaram ratthaanaam
             Arishtanemim prithanaaja maasum
             Swasthaye thaarkshya mihaahuvema

  18. Indrasyeva raathi-maajohuvaanaa:
    Swasthaye naava mivaaruhema
    Urvvee na: pritthwee bahule gabheere
    Maa vaamethou maa parethou rishaama

  19. Sadyaschidya-ssavasaa panchakrishtee:
    Soorya iva jyothishaapa-sthathaana
    Sahasrasa- ssathasaa asya ramhi:
    Nasmaa varanthe yuvathinnasaryyaam
Upastthaanam (Substantive)

The Upastthaana manthram is after Punah: pranavam, usually chanted as a prayer, facing the Lord with folded hands. It is proferred to the Sun God Savithaavu, apparent as Aadithyan, who is perceived as Varunan at dusk, Mithran at dawn and Sooryan at midday.

Face west at dusk and east at dawn. The Saamavedis pray to the Fire God in the evenings.

1. Upastthaanam at Dusk

Aum. Imam me varuna srudhee – hava madyaa cha mrLaya
Thwaamavasyu raachake
Thathwaa yaami brahmana vandamaana:
Thadaasaasthe yajamaano havirbhi:
AheLmaano varuneha bodhi
Urusamsa maana aayu: pramoshee:

For Yajurvedis :
For Yajurvedis, the Manthram is the same, but there is difference in vocal alternant.
Aum. Imam me – imamme; mrLaya – mrdaya; AheLamaano – Ahedamaano;
         Urusamsa – urus sa; aayu: pramoshee: - aayuph pramoshee:

For Saamavedis - At dusk
Aum. 1. Agne thwanno anthama: utha thraathaa sivo bhuvo varutthya:
            Thwam varuna utha mithro agne thwaam vardhhanthi mathibhir vasishtthaa:

         2. Thwe vasu sushananaani sandhu yooyam paatha swasthibhi: sadaa na:

2. Upastthaanam at Dawn

For Rigvedis - At dawm

  1. Aum. Mithrasya charushanee dhritha: avo devasya saanasi
             Dyumnan-chithra sravasthamam
  2. Mithrojanaan yaathayathi bruvaana: mithro daadhaara pritthivee mutha dyaam
    Mithra: krishteera nimishaaƒbhichashte mithraaya havyang ghruthavajjuhotha
  3. Pra sa mithra martho asthu prayaswaan stha aadithya sikshathi vrathena
    Na hanyathe na jeeyathe thwotho nainamamho asnothyanthitho na duraal
For Yajurvedis
  1. Aum. Mithrasya charshanee dhrutha: sravo devasya saanasim
             Sathyam chithra sravastharam
  2. Mithro janaan yaathayathi prajaanan mithro daadhaara pritthivee-muthadyaam
    Mithra: krishteera nimishaaƒbhichashte sathyaaya havyang ghrithavadwidhema

avo – sravo; saanasi – saanasim; dyumnam –sathyam; bruvaana - prajaanan; ghrithavajjuhotha - ghrithavadwidhema

For Saamavedis
Aum1. Udwayam thamasaspari swa: pasyntho jyothirutharam
Devam devathraa sooraymaganma jyothirutharam
2. Pra mithraaya praarymne sachatthya mrithaavaso
Varutthye varune chhandyam vacha: sthothram raajasu gaayatha

3. Samaapanam (Conclusion)

1. Obeisance to the directional bearings:

After completing the Upastthaana Manthram, perform the propitiation of the directional bearings. Starting facing east in the mornings and west in the evenings, propitiate the four directions turning clockwise, and finally heavenwards and earthwards.

1. Westwards: Aum. Varunaaya nama:Pratheechai dise nama:
2. Northwards: Aum. Somaaya nama:Udeechai dise nama:
3. Eastwards: Aum. Indraaya nama:Praachai dise nama:
4. Southwards: Aum. Yamaaya nama:Dakshinaayai dise nama:
5. Upwards: Aum. Brahmane nama:Oordhwaayai dise nama:
6. Downwards: Aum. Nama: Pritthivyai nama:Sarvaabhyo devathaabhyo dise nama:

1. The Aashwalaayana Rigvedis (from Alathur) also have to propitiate the corner directions:

1.1. North-west: Aum. Vaayave nama:1.2. North-east: Aum. Eesaanaaya nama:
1.3. South-east: Aum. Agnaye nama:1.4. South-west : Aum. Nir ruthaye nama:

2. For some Yajurvedi Badhoolakans:

After the Upasttahnaa Manthram in the evening:

2.1. Westwards: Aum. Agnaye nama:2.2 Straight to the south: Aum. Yamaaya nama:
2.3. Facing north: Aum. Brahmane nama:

Praying thus, turn right circumtreading and tally saying ekam ( “one”). Again turning in the same manner, tally dwayam, thrayam, chathu:, pancha, shul, saptha upto “seven” by performing seven circumtreads, and touch the earth chanting Dhruvaasi nama:. Finally, turn west and pray chanting Pratheechai dise nama:

When completing the Upastthaanam in the morning, chant

Aum. Mithraaya nama: eastwards,
Aum. Yamaaya nama: southwards, and
Aum. Brahmane nama: northwards, each time turning clockwise. Then turn round to the right until you face east and tally “one”. Repeat turning seven times and finally touch the earth chanting Dhruvaasi nama: Finally facing east. pray chanting Praachai dise nama:

2. Circumtreading

After the directional prayers, do circumtreading seven times clockwise bearing on oneself: Aum. ekam, Aum. dwayam, Aum. thrayam, Aum. chathu:, Aum. pancha, Aum. shull, Aum. saptha.

Note: 1. At dusk, start and end facing west.
2. At dawn, start and end facing east.
3. Vyaahrthi is destructive order - (from bottom to top).
4. Pradakshinam is constructive order - (from top to bottom).

3. Dhruvaasi

After the circumtreading, touch the base of the right ear with all finger tips together of the right hand, then chanting “Aum. Dhruvaasi” touch the ground flat handed. Touching the base of the ear with just the thumb and little finger is a variant form, but the ground has to be touched by the whole right palm. Baadhoolakans, however, chant “Dhruvaasi nama:”.

4. Greeting (“Abhivaadyam”)

Finally perform the ritual greeting. The earth has to be ritually greeted as a representation of the pervasive “purusha” image of the Almighty. Touch the base of the right and left ears with the corresponding hands, fingers held together. Chant the Manthram and bring the hands to the ground, shaping them in the “Swasthika” sign (crossed). The entire palm must touch the ground flat.

Aum. Abhivaadaye Brahmadatha sarmaa (one’s own name) nama ahamasmi bho:

(Right hand on top - Swastika sign - X. It will mean that we are touching the lord’s both feet with our corresponding hands. )

Note: 1. Rigvedi Kausheetakans chant only
         Aum. Abhivaadaye Brahmadatha sarmaa hambho:

         2. Samavedis delete the “sharma” above except when it appears as part of their name.
         (Eg.: Aaryasarman, Godasarman, Saasthrusarman, etc.)

| Article No:8.1.1 | Last update of this article:21st July 2009 |
Source: Trai Vedika Sandhya Padhati, Vol. 1., by "Vaiyasaki".
Published by: Kerala Vaidika Parishad, Guruvayoor, Feb. 2005

English Translation: Prof. P Bhaskaran Nayar, Lincoln University, UK

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