Somayaagam 2003

Detailed Programme of Somayaagam 2003

The goal of all Yaagams is the prosperity of the people at large by energizing and protecting the environment. The Sun is considered as the main source of energy supply, and fire is considered as a representation of the Sun's energy. According to the ancient texts on Yaagam, any offer to Fire as a god, is actually an offer to Sun. Any such offer is either to enrich energy in the environment or to destroy the undesirable elements in the environment, and thus, in both ways, environment is protected. Attaching divine nature to such rituals (like Yaagam) induced people to practice them. Thus, the ancient texts proclaim that "Such Vaidika Karmams are result-oriented, and meant to lead to Sreyass or spiritual attainments". The technical procedures for such Karmams (rituals) are detailed in ancient texts like the Braahmanams and Sroutha Soothrams. More important than the learning and understanding of the concepts, is the actual performance of such Karmams. In other words, the "performer" spreads more Sreyass to the world than the texts (Granthhams) themselves.

In the light of above, any person is supposed to know how a Yaagam is performed. Those who intend to attend this Somayaagam are adviced to keep a copy of this article. Only very important points are included in this article.

Stages in Somayaagam: A Somayaagam (eg.: Agnishtomam) is a five-stage process, with

1. Naandeemukham (prelude) upto Saalaa Pravesam,
2. Deekshaahassu,
3. Upasaddinangal (Upasath days), or Oupavasathyam Ahassu (Ahassu = day).

[These three qualify the performer to do the most important part of Yaagam on Suthyam days.]

4. Suthyam, and
5. Yajnapuchham (tail-end of Yaagam).

The following table gives a summary of the performing days of each stage.

6th April, 2003: Aadhaanam, a prereqisite to Somayaagam (Agnisthomam).

7th April, 2003 (Day 1 of Somayaagam): The objective of Yajamaanan at this stage of Agnisthomam (or any Yaagam) is to obtain the right to do Deeksha (self-consecration, stage - 2, below), by performing some rituals. Also, Agnisthomam formally begins with these rituals.

9 AM - 1 PM: After external purifications like the traditional bath, Aachamanam, Naandeemukha-Punyaaham, etc. and internal purifications through Praanaayamam, etc., the Yajamaanan performs rituals seeking blessings from teachers and elders, and from God for making him remember the essential texts of Thaithireeya, Kausheethaka and Saama Chadangu (ritual procedures), Obtaining Sakhyam (Camaraderie) of Rithwiks, enabling him to create fire from the Arani (a traditional and crude mechanism for fire creation) and later for Aavaahanam of the fire back to the Arani. After these and a few other rituals, the Yajamaanan and the Rithwiks concentrate on the expected results of the process, enter the Yaagasaala with all the necessary items, make the fire from Arani, and deploy the fire in the required locations.

1 PM - 6 PM: Deeksha of Yajamaanan refers to the control of his senses (Indriyam) upto a much higher spiritual level. It is mandatory to perform the most important parts (Stage 3 to 5) of any Yaagam. It starts with Hothru-Homam, and Koosmaanda-Homam (to remove all the accumulated sins in life). After these Homams, the Yajaamanan performs Afsudeeksha, followed by the important Deekshayaneeyeshti for Agni and Vishnu, using (eleven Kapaalangalil Sravichha) Purodaasam (a special food item, made from powdered rice), as Havissu (offering).

At the end of several other rituals and procedures (Deekshaahuthi, receiving Krishnaajinam & Dandu etc.) after sunset, the Yajamaanan is declared as a Deekshithan. The Adhwaryu then preaches to the Yajamaanan the importance of Deeksha, during which he should control his senses, language (Sanskrit), conversation, should not tell lies, laugh, itch fan/cool the body (for relief from heat), remove Krishnaajinam and so on. This is followed by the ritual, Sani, involving formally getting and keeping the Dakshina Dravyam (items for alm), and then Vratha Dohanam and Vratha Paanam. Vratham is the milk for the consumption of the Yajamaanan and the Pathni (Yajamaanan's wife).

8th April, 2003 (Day 2 of Somayaagam): This first Upasath day is quite hectic for the Rithwiks.

6 AM - 7.30 AM: The rituals, Vrathadohanam, Praayaneeyeshti (An important Ishti). Praayaneeyeshti is a ritual to offer Havissu to five gods. The Havissu (item to offer) here is Charu for Adithi and Ghee for the other four gods. Charu is basically Nivedyam but made in a ritualistic manner.

7.30 AM - 8 AM: Padam, Somakrayam (purchase of the Somalatha (Click here to know more about Somalatha) or Soma plant) & sending off Kodhsan. Padam is the soil (and its collection) which has been stepped on by the calf used for purchasing Soma.

8AM - 8.30 AM: The Soma is brought to the Saala in an ox cart, placed on an Aasandi (pedestal, Peettham) and received with the Arghya items.

8.30 AM - 10 AM: Aathithhyeshti (an important Ishti). Aathithhyeshti ceremoniously welcomes Soman as Athithhi or guest, although Vishnu is the spirit of this Ishti. (Vishnu is the consumer, Soman, the consumed; hence the relation). Purodaasam, made of rice, is the Havissu for this Ishti. Midway, fire is made through abrasion and deposited in the Aahavaneeyaagni. All the Rithwiks, except Saamavedis, together take a pledge of Camaraderie, touching Thaanoonasthram, the ghee from this Ishti. It follows Avaanthara Deeksha. Avaanthara Deeksha ritual is then performed for exchanging the Yajamaanan's body with Agni's. He thus conceals his identity and prevents the gods from troubling him.

10 AM - 10.45 AM: Pravargya Sambhaaram, the formal collection and Samskaaram of the items required for Pravargyam.

11 AM - 1 PM: First Pravargyam: Pravargyam is considered as the Yajamaanan's head and Upasath, his neck. The story goes that once, the Yajamaanan's head was cut off accidently at his neck during his Yaagam, but was rectified through the powers of Aswineedevans (gods). The rituals connected with Pravargyam are these rectification processes, and hence considered brutal. So the wife of the Yajamaanan, as well as other ladies are banned from being present in the Agnihothrasaala, during these rituals, and the doors are kept closed. The rituals are performed only during day-time. All rituals for Pravargyam are preceded and followed by Saanthijapam (chanting for peace and tranquility) It is followed by Upaasath, an Ishti (ritual) in which Agni, Soman and Vishnu are the gods with Aajyam (Ghee with manthrams chanted) as Havissu (offering). Its objective is to cleanse the area with fire and has to be done in a hurry. All the six Pravargyams following this will be performed in the same manner.

4 PM - 6 PM: Second Pravagyam.

9th April, 2003 (Day 3 of Somayaagam):

6 AM - 8 AM: First Pravargyam & Upaasath Ishti

8.30 AM - 9 AM: Yoopam Kollal

9 AM - 10 AM: Vedeekaranam, a ritual to be performed as part of the land survey for Mahaavedi (main stage).

4 PM - 6 PM: Second Pravagyam.

10th April, 2003 (Day 4 of Somayaagam):

4 AM - 6 AM: First Pravargyam (including subraahmaniaahwaanam)& Upaasath Ishti

7 AM - 9 AM: Second Pravargyam (including subraahmaniaahwaanam)& Upaasath Ishti

10 AM - 12 AM: Homam for Gharmodwaasana. This is followed by transportation of all the items in a traditional manner to the Dasapadam (east of the Mahaavedi), and arrangement in the form of a male human figure, known as Yajnapurushan. Items are arranged as organs of Yajnapurushan.

12 noon- 1 PM: On a raised platform with thatched roof, located west of Dasapadam, called Havirdhaanam, two twin-wheeled carts, called Chaatu or Sakatam, are brought and parked. This process is termed Havirdhaana-Pravarthanam and is performed here. Three Upasaalaas (sub-areas) are now to be formally made, though they would have already been constructed. One of them is located near the eastern side of the west (Agnihothra) Saala, and is called Sadass. The other two are smaller and are located in the middle of the southern and northern boundaries of the Mahaavedi, and are called Maarjaaleeyam and Aagneedhriyam, respectively.

1.30 PM - 2 PM: Between the two wheels and front of the southern cart, four small pits are dug - Uparavams - in which certain rituals are performed to purify the area by destroying the Valagam (poison) supposed to have been placed there by Asurans (demons) for removing Somarasam. The pits are covered with two wooden planks placed between four stakes (one "Chaan" high; "Chaan" = distance between tips of middle finger and thumb, stretched in opposite directions).

Somaabhishavam (grinding and squeezing the juice) is to be done on an ox hide spread on the planks and raised along the edges over the stakes in a bowl-like fashion. Eight Dhishnyams - low, circular earthen platforms of two Chaanns diameter and one Viral (finger) high - are made, one each in Maarjaaleeyam and Aagneedhriyam and six in Sadass. Then Darbha Pullu (Darbha grass) is spread over the entire floor of the Mahaavedi. The Yajamaanan then goes near the Somaabhishavam location and changes to his own self from another form he had taken through Avaanthara Deeksha.

2.30 PM - 4 PM: Now the Ishti of Agneeshomeeyam Pasu (an important Ishti) is initiated and then Agneeshoma Pranayanam is performed, in which Agni and Soman are taken from the west Saala and placed in Agneedhriyam and on the southern cart respectively. When the Yajamaanan observed Deeksha, his soul (Aatmaavu) came under the control of Agni and Soman. He now regains his soul by offering Agneeshomeeyam Pasu, a double-coloured (any two of black, white and red / brown) lamb. Fixing the Yoopam is to be done now. (The tree used as Yoopam may be Palaasam (Plaasu - Butea monosperma - flame of the forest), Bilwam (Koovalam - Aegle marmelops - wood apple) or Khadiram (Karinjaali). The Yoopam is fixed at the middle of the eastern boundary of the Mahaavedi.

4 PM - 6 PM: Next is Paswaalambhanam (Click here to know more about Paswaalambhanam). It involves Homam (offering to Agni) of certain parts of a sacrificial animal, usually lamb. The three items for Homam are : (1) Vapa which represests the fibrous fatty part of the animal spread over the entire body; (2) Purodaasam, a special preparation with rice powder, purportedly representing the essence (Saaraamsam) of the animal; and (3) Haviss, representing the organs like heart, tongue (Jihwa), etc. Some Homams with Hothan & Maithaavarunan's Manthrams. It follows Vapa Homam.

6 PM - 6.30 PM: A pot (Kutam) of clear and clean water is collected from a water source. This is called Vasatheevari. It follows Saamasthuthi.

7 - 8.30 PM: Pasu purodaasam & Pasu Havissu Homam.

8.30 PM - 9.30 PM: Anuyaajam (an important Homam). Also, a Praisham (instruction) given by Adhwaryu on the next day's rituals.

9.30 PM - 10.30 PM: Panchadoham of Prathiprasthhaathan, commencement of 5th day's Pasu Ishti & fixing of Maadaavus.

11th April, 2003 (Day 5 of Somayaagam, Suthyam day): This stage of a Yaagam is Suthyam. All the rituals and arrangements done so far only prepares the Yajamaanan and others to perform Suthyam, which is the most important aspect of Yaagams. They are now qualified for it. Suthyam involves, among many other things, Somaahuthy and Sthuthi Sasthrams.

2 AM - 4.30 AM: After some rituals, Savaneeyam Praatharana Uvaakam (Agneedhran & Hothan) is performed.

4.30 - 5 AM: Ekadhana-Grahanam (formally collecting water in at least three containers);

5 AM - 7 AM: Preparation of Soma juice for Somaahuthi. Just to the west of and attached to the southern cart (Chaatu) a cloth piece (Dasaapavithram) is kept stretched for straining Soma into the vessel (Dronakalasam) kept underneath on the Uparavappalaka. On the north cart will be kept two containers (Mitaavu), called Aadhavaneeyam and Poothabhruth, with the ground Soma juice stored in the former and covered by a cloth. The Soma juice is taken from the vessel with an earthen pot (Kindi) and poured over Dasaapavithram and the strained juice drops down as a stream - Dhaara - into the Dronakalasam. It is from this Dhaara that Soma is collected as and when needed, using wooden Oordhwa-Paathrams. Eleven of these are required for most ordinary Yaagams. Nine are made of Peraal (banyan - Ficus bengalensis) and are named : Upaamsu, Antharyaamam, Aindravaayavam, Maithraavarunam, Aswinam, two Rithu Paathrams, Aadithyopasayam, and Ukthhyaapasayam. (For Athiraathram, 3 more pots, called Athigraahyas, are also needed). Sukrapaathram is made of Koovalam (Bilwam - Aegle marmelops - wood apple) while Manthipaathram, of Vayyankatha (Gymnosporia montana - Family: Celastracea). Formal Abhishavam is to be done separately for each Savanam. The first two Somaahuthys on the Suthyam day, using the containers called Upaamsu and Antharyaamam, are the most important ones. They are to be done just before and after sunrise, respectively. The first Somaahuthi, called Upaamsuhomam, is done by Adhwaryu and poured into the Upaamsu, and the Yajamaanan performs Somaahuthi with it. The second, Antharyaamahomam.

Then they sing Bahish - Pavamaana Sthuthi for cleansing the mind, and other Sthuthis and Sasthrams, before Savana Karmams. It is believed that Aswinidevathas hear this Stuthi. (Click here to know more about Bahish-Pavamaana-Sthuthi).

7.30 AM - 8.30 AM: The next Kriya is Aagneyam Pasu (also called Savaneeya Pasu), spreading into the three Savanams : Vapa Homam in the morning Savanam, Srapanam (boiling/cooking) in the mid-day Savanam, and Havish Prachaaram (or Hridayaadyanga Homam) in the third Savanam.

8.30 AM - 9.30 AM: All Rithwiks shall occupy their respective seats, a process known as "Kutipukkirikkuka". Dhishnavyaaghaaranam, Soma Upasthaanam. After Sthuthi, Soma is caught (Grahanam) in the Aaswina-Paathram. After this, a general and specific Upasthaanam (Somopasthaanam) is done with the Soma juice kept in the different vessels. Embers from Agneedhriyam Dhishnyam are taken and placed in the other seven Dhishnyams and Homams are performed. This is called Dhishnya Vyaaghaaranam.

9 AM - 10 AM: Savaneeya Purodaasaadi Homam, Dwidevathya Prachaaram (an important Homam) & Idaahwaana Bhakshanam: Savaneeyam involves five havissus: Purodaasam, Dhaanakal (pounded and fried Yavam), Karambham (pounded, fried and powdered Yavam mixed in ghee), Parivaapam (Malar or popped rice), and Aamiksha. These would have been prepared by Agneedhran during Mahaaraathram (explained earlier) itself while the other Kriyas were going on. Dwidevathya Prachaaram is the Homams of Soma collected in Aindravaayavam, Maithraavarunam and Aaswinam. Then, Hothan and Adhwaryu consume (Bhakshikkal - here, only wetting of lips, or smelling) the Hutha Sishtam (remains of offers in rituals) of Dwidevathya Grahams, followed by Idaahwaanam.

10 AM - 10.30 AM: Next is Prasthhitha in which Adhwaryu and Prathiprasthhaathan perform Homams using Sukra Paathram and Manthhi Paathram, and joined by all Rithwiks doing Homams of Soma juice with their Chamasams (special vessels). This is followed by separate Homams by Maithraavarunan, etc., using their own Chamasams. Thus ends Prasthhitha.

10.30 AM - 11.30 AM: Consume (Bhakshanam - here, only wetting of lips, or smelling) of Savaneeya Hutam Sishtam Havissu, and then Vaajina (whey) Homam and Bhakshanam, and where Aamiksha exists, its Homam and Bhakshanam. Idaahwaanam is a ritual in which Purodaasam is collected in a pot, called Ida, by Hothan followed by Manthrams to address (Aahwaanam) other Rithwiks. Then, Savana Mukha Bhakshanam (eating the remains of Soma used for Savanam, explained above) for all Rithwiks who are eligible to have Chamasams.

11.30 AM - 12 noon: Achhaavaakeeyam comes next. This is the formal and conditional welcoming back of Achhaavaakan who was not in the scene for long. The condition involves his having to recite one Sooktham, which he does. Then Soma is poured in his Chamasam, he does Homam with it, Bhakshanam and Kutippukkirikkal.

12 noon - 12.30 PM: There is now a very brief resting time for the busy Adhwaryu, while the Yajamaanan and wife eat lunch. Rithwiks too eat lunch. This is followed by Rithu Yaagam. In this, the gods are the twelve seasons (Rithus in a year, explained in Panchaangam). Adhwaryu and Prathiprasthhaathan collect Soma from Dronakalasam and take turns to perform twelve Homams. Hothan and six other Rithwiks recite the Aajya. A set of two Homams is considered as a two-month Rithu (season). As in the case of Dwidevathyam, consumption of Hutha Sesham from the Rithupaathram (pot) in Rithu Yaagam is also only by wetting the lips or smelling (Ghraana Bhakshanam).

12.30 PM - 3 PM: Hothan's first and second Sasthrams, Saamasthuthi, Maithraavarunan's Sasthram, Braamanaachamsi's Sasthram, and Achaavaakan's Sasthram (the last two, in the presence of Prathiprasthaathan, in the seat of Adhwaryu). Each of the last three is preceded by Soma collection and Sthuthi recitation. (Explanation: The last part of the Praathassavanam is the recitation of five Sasthrams. The first is Aajya Sasthram, with Indraagni as Devatha (god). Facing the Rithwik reciting Sasthram, will be seated Prasthiprasthhathan serving as Prathigaram (motivator / applauder). After Sasthram, Soma Homam is performed and the Hutha Sesham is consumed. Then after a Sthuthi with Udgaathan in the lead and supported by four other Rithwiks, it is now the Hothan's turn for the second Sasthram called Pra-Ugam, in which seven different Viswadevakal form the Devathas, and each Thricham (three Riks) is preceded by recitation of Puroruk Rik. After the Sasthram, Homam and Bhakshanam, there are three more Sasthrams by Maithraavarunan, Braahmanaachhamsi and Achhaavaakan, Praathassavanam is now over.)

As a prelude of Maadhyandina Savanam, after a general Upasthhaanam and a special one for Aadithyan, and after Kutippukkirikkal, Adhwaryu goes to Havirdhaanam and performs Soma Abhishekam, along with Graavastothan's Sthuthi. Seven Rithwiks, as before with hands on others' shoulders, perform Savanaahuthi and again takes their respective places. The Kriyas are almost the same as in the previous Savanam except for a Dadhigharmam.

3 PM - 3.30 PM: Dadhigharmam, which is the collection of Dadhi (curd) in an Otam (a small open vessel, like a bowl), its processing (Srayanam), Homam and Bhakshanam, all of which are accompanied by chanting of Manthrams.

3.30 PM - 4.30 PM: Savaneeyam with Pasu Purodaasam & Prasthitha. (This is spectacular).

4.30 PM - 5 PM: Idaahwaana Bhakshanam, Savanamukha Bhakshanam & Vratham of Yajamaanan & Pathni.

5 PM - 5.30 PM: Now it is the Daakshinaayani which is a Karmam to give Dakshina to the Rithwiks (112 cows), to those in attendance and even to the casual visitors. In practice, real cows are not given, but are represented by Puthupanam - a small ancient coin - even which is only pretended to be given. It follows Agrapooja.

5.30 PM - 10 PM: Dakshina ( holy payment ) to Rithwiks. Pancha Vaiswakarmana Homam as a Praayaschitham to counter the inability to satisfy everyone's expectations, follows this. Third & fourth Sasthrams of Hothan, Sasthrams of others followed by Sthuthis.

10 PM - 12 midnight: Aadithya Griham, Pasu Havissu Savaneeya Purodaasam, Dhishnya Vyaaghaaranam

12th April, 2003 (Day 6 of Somayaagam, as a continuation of day-5, Suthyam day):

12 midnight - 1.30 AM: Savithru graham an important one) followed by Hothan's fifth Sasthram.

1.30 AM - 2.30 AM: Now, there is a Karmam called Sowmyam, using the Charu made by Prathiprasthhaathan, after which ghee is poured into the Charu and the Thaithareeyas as well as the Saamavedis in the Sadass look for and see their own reflection in the ghee. The Homa Sesham, if consumed by pregnant women, is believed to cause excellent children to be born to them! Next is Paathneevatham, in which Adhwaryu performs Homam with Soma mixed with ghee supplied by Prathiprasthhaathan; Agneedhran recites Yaajya Manthram and consumes the Homa Sesham while seated on Neshtan's lap. The wife (Pathni) is led and seated in the Sadass before Sthuthi (Yajnaayajnayam) and Aagnimaarutham Sasthram. If the wife gets excited while listening to the melodious Sthuthi, she should cleanse her body with the Panne Jani. The Savanam ends with the Homam of all the Chamasams and the consumption of Homa Sishtam. It follows Druvasthaali Upasthaanam.

2.30 AM - 4 AM: Hothan's sixth Sasthram. Thereafter, Neshtan leads the Pathni to bring to the Sadassu the water - Panne Jani - meant for her Soucham (body cleansing). It follows Saamasthuthi.

4.30 AM - 5.30 AM: Yajamaanan performs Pindam at Maarjaaleeyam. Homam at Agneendriyam (Palacharani Praayaschitham). It follows Adhwaryu's Sruvaahuthi, Sakhya-Visargam (releasing the bond of Camaraderie among the Rithwiks, undertaken earlier with Thaanoonasthram), termination of Agneendriyam, 5-chamatha Homam, Upasthaanam to Aadithyan, Dadidrafsam Bhakshanam, & Namaskaaram. Thus ends Maadhyandina Savanam. It follows Anuyaajam (an important Kriya to make the Yajamaanan, a Somayaaji). Thus ends Suthyam. The remaining is the tail end of the Yaagam (Yajna puchcham)

5.30 AM - 7 AM: Performance of Praayaschitham (here, Kalpa-Praayaschitham), in order to overcome any imperfections in the performance.

7 AM - 9 AM: Then it is Avabhrutham Ishti (starting in the Saala and ending in the pond), in which most of the used items are deposited in a water body (pond, lake or river), everyone bathes (Avabhrutham Snaanam) and returns to the Saala.

9 AM - 11.30 AM: Udayaneeyeshti, followed by Prathiprasthaathan's Ishti, Maithraavaruneeyeshti with Aamiksha (in Somayaagam). Powdered rice is then used for Sakthu Homam, assuming the Vaidikaagni to be forest fire. Thereafter, the Threthaagnis (the three spiritual fires attained through Yaagam) are shown (Kaachi) at and invoked back to the Arani. Once the Threthaagni is invoked back to Arani, the remaining fire in the Yaagasala has conceptually become forest fire with no spiritual content. Also, the Yaagasala has lost its divine nature. The Yaagasaala is set fire to with this fire.

Back Home: On the way (Prathyaagamanam), either Ubhavaneeya Ishti or Poornaahuthi is performed and this Threthaagni is taken to the Yajamaanan's residence (Illam) and placed in an appropriate location like Vadukkini or Padinjaatti (two rooms in a Namboothiri Illam). The Somayaagam is now over and the Yajamaanan now becomes a Somayaaji and his wife, Paththanaadi.

Agnihothram Rituals: It is using this Threthaagni that the Somayaaji and Paththanaadi perform the rituals, viz., Agnihothram, twice daily, and Darsesthi and Poornamaaseeyesthi on every Prathipadam (first day after full moon or new moon), through out their life. Darsesthi and Poornamaaseeyesthi (about two hours long) require, apart from Yajamaanan, four Rithwiks, namely, Adhwaryu, Brahman, Agneedharan and Hothan, who can be members of Yajamaanan's family, unless they have Pula. Though Pula (defilement) (Click here to know more about Pula) forces the Yajamaanan to stop the Yaagam; it does not affect the Agnihothram rituals, which are continued to be performed. For these two Isthis of this Somayaaji (Puthillath Ramanujan Namboothiri), Hothan as well as Brahman should be an expert in Rigvedam.

Life of Threthaagni: Whoever dies first - the Somayaaji or Pathanaadi - is cremated using this fire, preceded and followed by special cremation rituals, much different from the usual cremation procedure of Namboothiris. The Threthaagni then ceases to exist, and the survivor discontinues Agnihothram and the Ishtis. The Somayaaji is eligible to revive Threthaagni only if any one Pathanaadi is alive and both are ready to repeat Aadhanam (called Punaraadhaanam). (It may be noted that they must have done Adhaanam prior to performing any Yaagam). Here, Somayaagam need not be repeated (just a performance of Aadhaanam will do) to revive Threthaagni. In case of his wife's death, if the Yajamaanan did not revive Threthaagni, he is cremated in the usual Namboothiri manner.

Note-1: At the end of every Yaagam, it usually rains. Presence of kites (Parunthu) above the Yaagasaala is also a common sight. No Yaagam-related document indicates such phenomena.

Note-2: The timings above may not be exact.

Click here for more details of Yaagam.

Article Prepared by : P. Vinod Bhattathiripad and K.D. Nambudripad with inputs from Vaidikan Thekkad Neelakantan Namboodiri & Vaidikan Thekkad Kesavan Namboodiri and the book by name Ekaahaaheenasathrangal, by Late Erkkara Raman Namboodiri (Senior)